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為什么直流電機需要控制器來控制電機速度和輸出轉矩?

來源:電機軟文 瀏覽次數:3159 發布時間:2022-03-29

       直(zhi)(zhi)流電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機控制(zhi)器是將(jiang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng)轉(zhuan)換(huan)為(wei)機械能(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)一(yi)種特(te)殊類型的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)氣(qi)設備(bei),直(zhi)(zhi)流電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機通過利用直(zhi)(zhi)流電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)來(lai)接收電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng),然后將(jiang)這(zhe)(zhe)種能(neng)(neng)量轉(zhuan)換(huan)為(wei)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機的(de)(de)自動旋轉(zhuan)。直(zhi)(zhi)流電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機幾(ji)乎無處不在(zai),他們(men)利用產生(sheng)的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流產生(sheng)的(de)(de)磁場,這(zhe)(zhe)些電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流是驅(qu)動固定在(zai)輸(shu)出(chu)軸上的(de)(de)轉(zhuan)子的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流,速度(du)和輸(shu)出(chu)轉(zhuan)矩取決于電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機的(de)(de)設計和電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)氣(qi)輸(shu)入。

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直流電機控制器如何工作?


       直流電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)功率和(he)尺寸各不(bu)相同(tong),根據不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)機(ji)(ji)制可(ke)用(yong)(yong)于(yu)電(dian)(dian)動葫(hu)蘆(lu)和(he)電(dian)(dian)梯,電(dian)(dian)動汽車以(yi)及玩具(ju)。直流電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)由(you)兩(liang)個(ge)(ge)基本部(bu)(bu)分組(zu)成:電(dian)(dian)樞和(he)定(ding)子,定(ding)子是(shi)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)固(gu)定(ding)部(bu)(bu)分,電(dian)(dian)樞是(shi)旋(xuan)轉(zhuan)部(bu)(bu)分。直流電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)除使用(yong)(yong)線(xian)(xian)圈(quan)外,還(huan)使用(yong)(yong)定(ding)子中(zhong)的(de)(de)固(gu)定(ding)磁(ci)鐵組(zu),導線(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)回路中(zhong)有(you)電(dian)(dian)流流過,從(cong)而產生對齊的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)磁(ci)場(chang)。絕緣線(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)一個(ge)(ge)或多個(ge)(ge)線(xian)(xian)圈(quan)繞組(zu)被包裹在電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)鐵心周圍,以(yi)集中(zhong)磁(ci)場(chang)。絕緣線(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)繞組(zu)連接到旋(xuan)轉(zhuan)電(dian)(dian)器(qi)開關(換(huan)向器(qi)),該開關繼續向線(xian)(xian)圈(quan)繞組(zu)施加(jia)電(dian)(dian)流。旋(xuan)轉(zhuan)的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)氣(qi)開關允許每個(ge)(ge)電(dian)(dian)樞線(xian)(xian)圈(quan)通電(dian)(dian),從(cong)而產生扭矩(ju)或穩(wen)定(ding)的(de)(de)旋(xuan)轉(zhuan)力。在按順序(xu)打開和(he)關閉線(xian)(xian)圈(quan)后,會(hui)產生一個(ge)(ge)與固(gu)定(ding)磁(ci)體的(de)(de)不(bu)同(tong)區域相互作用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)磁(ci)場(chang),從(cong)而產生扭矩(ju)。這些基本的(de)(de)工作原理允許直流電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)將(jiang)電(dian)(dian)能從(cong)直流電(dian)(dian)轉(zhuan)換(huan)為(wei)可(ke)用(yong)(yong)于(yu)推進(jin)設備的(de)(de)機(ji)(ji)械能,這些都是(shi)通過旋(xuan)轉(zhuan)運動實現的(de)(de)。

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誰發明了直流電機控制器?


       直流電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)杰出的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)氣設(she)備,它以許多不(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)方式徹(che)底(di)改變了(le)人(ren)們的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)活,但是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)誰是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)直流電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)發(fa)明(ming)(ming)者呢?就像(xiang)其(qi)他(ta)所(suo)有創(chuang)新(xin)一樣,很多人(ren)通過開發(fa)其(qi)他(ta)設(she)備發(fa)揮了(le)作用。在美國,托(tuo)馬斯·達文(wen)波(bo)(bo)特(Thomas Davenport)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)第(di)一臺電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)發(fa)明(ming)(ming)者,在1837年(nian),達文(wen)波(bo)(bo)特是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)第(di)一個(ge)為(wei)可用的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機申(shen)請(qing)專利(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)人(ren),但是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),達文(wen)波(bo)(bo)特并(bing)不(bu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)第(di)一個(ge)這(zhe)樣制造電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)人(ren),因為(wei)歐洲的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)其(qi)他(ta)發(fa)明(ming)(ming)家早些時候已經(jing)開發(fa)了(le)功(gong)能更強大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機。之所(suo)以稱(cheng)贊(zan)達文(wen)波(bo)(bo)特為(wei)原始發(fa)明(ming)(ming)人(ren),是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)因為(wei)他(ta)較早申(shen)請(qing)了(le)專利(li)(li), 1834年(nian),雅各比·莫里茨(Jacobi Moritz)已經(jing)提出了(le)一種比達文(wen)波(bo)(bo)特(Davenport)更高功(gong)率的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(功(gong)率是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)其(qi)三(san)倍)。一年(nian)后(hou),Sibrandus Stratingh和Christopher Becker展示(shi)了(le)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)實際應用。

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直流電機控制器和直流電機控制的類型


無(wu)刷直流電機


       也被稱為同步直流(liu)電機或電子換(huan)向電機,這些類型的電機主要區(qu)別在于它們缺少換(huan)向器,這被可以檢測并隨(sui)后調整轉子角度的伺服(fu)機構(gou)代替,無刷直流(liu)電機堅固耐用且安全。


有刷直流電機


       這些(xie)是(shi)最早的(de)直流電(dian)機,可以追溯到電(dian)機的(de)最初設計(ji),盡管它(ta)們在造紙機,起重機和軋機中仍然(ran)很(hen)受歡迎,但最近(jin)卻逐漸消(xiao)失(shi)。


并聯直流電機


       這(zhe)是一種有(you)刷電(dian)機(ji),其(qi)勵磁繞組與電(dian)樞并聯(lian),由于(yu)并聯(lian)繞組,它(ta)們具有(you)較低的電(dian)流,并聯(lian)電(dian)機(ji)在需要(yao)恒定轉矩的多種應用(yong)中(zhong)發現了很(hen)多用(yong)途,攪拌機(ji),傳送帶和起重(zhong)機(ji)最依賴它(ta)們。


串聯直流電機


       這些是最終(zhong)的(de)品種,串聯(lian)連接的(de)勵磁(ci)繞(rao)組將它們與并聯(lian)電(dian)機區分開,這意味著電(dian)樞電(dian)流(liu)確實會(hui)通過(guo)勵磁(ci)繞(rao)組,從而(er)產生(sheng)更快的(de)速度,串聯(lian)直(zhi)流(liu)電(dian)機是要求高啟(qi)動轉矩的(de)任(ren)務(wu)的(de)理想選(xuan)擇。


當涉及直流電機控制時,以下是最常用的(de)方法:


方向控制器:H橋


       H橋電(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)是(shi)控(kong)制直(zhi)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機的(de)最簡單方法之一,這(zhe)樣的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機內可以找到四個(ge)成對控(kong)制的(de)開關(guan),當這(zhe)兩對中的(de)任何一個(ge)閉合時,它(ta)們(men)立(li)即(ji)完成電(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)并隨(sui)后(hou)為電(dian)(dian)(dian)動機供電(dian)(dian)(dian),H橋也可以控(kong)制速度。


速度(du)控制器:脈寬調制(PWM)


       PWM電(dian)(dian)路通過模擬電(dian)(dian)源的增加或減(jian)少來(lai)改變電(dian)(dian)機(ji)的速度, PWM易于應用且成本低(di)(di)廉,這是可以連(lian)續控(kong)制(zhi)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)速度的一個方面。這些控(kong)制(zhi)器通過向電(dian)(dian)機(ji)發送周期性脈沖來(lai)工作,當使用常規脈沖的線圈電(dian)(dian)感帶來(lai)一定(ding)的約束平滑效果時(shi),電(dian)(dian)機(ji)就像是由高壓(ya)或低(di)(di)壓(ya)供電(dian)(dian)。


電(dian)樞控制器:可變電(dian)阻


       這是影響直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機速(su)度(du)的(de)(de)另一種方法,通過電(dian)(dian)樞或勵磁線圈(quan)(quan)饋入的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)會發(fa)生(sheng)變(bian)(bian)化。當線圈(quan)(quan)電(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)發(fa)生(sheng)變(bian)(bian)化時,輸出(chu)軸的(de)(de)速(su)度(du)也會發(fa)生(sheng)變(bian)(bian)化,可(ke)變(bian)(bian)電(dian)(dian)阻器可(ke)以改變(bian)(bian)電(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu),從而(er)可(ke)以提高(gao)速(su)度(du)。


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購買直流電機時需要了解的內容


       購買直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)之(zhi)前,需要(yao)考慮一些(xie)基本事項,以下是一些(xie)要(yao)考慮的關鍵因素:能(neng)量(liang)越高(gao),扭(niu)矩(ju)越大(da),能(neng)量(liang)使(shi)凈電(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)保持(chi)單一方(fang)向流(liu)(liu)動(dong),在使(shi)用說明書中檢(jian)查推薦的直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)拉力(li)。電(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)為(wei)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)提供(gong)動(dong)力(li),其(qi)中太多電(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)是危險的,因為(wei)它將損壞電(dian)(dian)機(ji),在使(shi)用直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)控制器之(zhi)前,請確保已了(le)解(jie)其(qi)工作電(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)和(he)堵轉電(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)。速度在電(dian)(dian)機(ji)方(fang)面有些(xie)復雜,電(dian)(dian)機(ji)在高(gao)速下有效運行,但(dan)是如果需要(yao)齒輪(lun)(lun)傳動(dong)則無(wu)法做到這一點,增加齒輪(lun)(lun)不會限(xian)制電(dian)(dian)機(ji)的效率。因此,還需要(yao)考慮扭(niu)矩(ju)和(he)速度降低(di)。


為什么選擇直流電機?


       當可以(yi)選(xuan)擇使(shi)用交(jiao)流電(dian)機(ji)時,強烈(lie)建議將(jiang)直流電(dian)機(ji)作為首選(xuan),與交(jiao)流電(dian)機(ji)相(xiang)比,直流電(dian)機(ji)具(ju)有一(yi)些(xie)優(you)勢。例如,需要用于(yu)(yu)驅(qu)動(dong)高(gao)慣性(xing)負載的(de)(de)高(gao)啟動(dong)轉矩時,它們是出色的(de)(de),與交(jiao)流電(dian)機(ji)不同,它易于(yu)(yu)控制直流電(dian)機(ji)的(de)(de)速度。


       當直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)需(xu)要從低壓直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)源(例如太(tai)陽能電(dian)(dian)池(chi)板或電(dian)(dian)池(chi))供(gong)電(dian)(dian)時,它們(men)也是理想(xiang)的選擇。如果快速反(fan)轉方向,您會發現直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)非(fei)常適(shi)合用。與交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)不同,可以輕(qing)松快速地啟動和(he)停止直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)。


直流電機控制器的應用領域


       現在(zai)市場(chang)上(shang)有(you)各種(zhong)直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji),我們(men)廣泛(fan)使用(yong)它(ta)們(men),在(zai)家里,直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji)可(ke)用(yong)于(yu)玩具(ju),工具(ju)和(he)(he)其(qi)他家用(yong)電(dian)(dian)器(qi)中(zhong)。在(zai)工業領域,他們(men)的(de)需(xu)求包括跨轉盤運(yun)(yun)行(xing)到(dao)傳送帶,以及反轉。直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji)基(ji)于(yu)其(qi)出色(se)的(de)運(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong)響應性(xing)和(he)(he)易于(yu)變速(su)的(de)特性(xing)而被用(yong)于(yu)為泵提供(gong)動(dong)(dong)力,由(you)于(yu)其(qi)節能機(ji)(ji)(ji)制,它(ta)們(men)是風扇(shan)的(de)首選。直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji)玩具(ju)具(ju)有(you)多種(zhong)電(dian)(dian)壓,因(yin)此(ci)需(xu)要不同類型的(de)運(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong)和(he)(he)速(su)度。優(you)選用(yong)于(yu)電(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)車輛的(de)直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji),因(yin)為它(ta)們(men)具(ju)有(you)耐用(yong)性(xing)和(he)(he)能效。電(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)自行(xing)車的(de)后輪(lun)和(he)(he)前輪(lun)輪(lun)轂(gu)中(zhong)都(dou)裝有(you)直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji),以實現所(suo)需(xu)的(de)功率水平(ping)和(he)(he)扭矩。



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